For your second edit, you must know that in France, we pronounce it the same way as a normal (french) “a”. Only some rare regions still make the difference, so don’t learn this sound, you won’t need it.
In phonetic, the two triangles ː after a vowell mean that it must be longer, as in english ship /i/ or sheep /iː/.
The sound ɑ is the same as the sound ä described above, but we don’t make the difference and always say it a, except in some regions.
The sound ɔ is the same as in the word spa in english. You can listen to it here again