The main difference is the spoken accent, but generally both French from France and French from Québec can communicate well together. On a written perspective, grammar and vocabulary rules are essentially the same; Québec has it’s own Office de la langue française, though. Since Québec is closer to the English language (Rest of Canada and USA), standard punctuation looks a bit more like theirs than to what is standard in France.
Obviously, there exist terms and idioms specific for each of these cultures (and you could even say region), which makes the other say “Heu, pardon?” or “Qu’essse tu dis?” (or your own favourite “What?” expression).
But to be honest, I think your question should be more specific. Best thing to do to have a good feeling of the difference is to find movies originating from each of those cultures. Beware, as some movies from Québec use the Français international, which is spoken a bit less with a typical Québec accent, and use less Québec slang.
In French we both use English term such as “parking” “week-end” and so on, and I must say that Canadian people use their English term better. Here in France we try to transform these term to a French form that sounds a little bit ridicule, in Canada they don’t.